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    您的位置 首頁 在線閱讀

    張大春《文章自在》在線閱讀:寓意

    我的小學老師俞敏之女士曾經勉勵班上的同學:要多讀故事,才會說話,才好作文。她還特別強調:光是隨便哪一本成語詞典里的故事就會讓我們終身受用不盡。我聽從她的指示,親手抄寫成語,抄了滿滿兩小冊作業簿。每個四字語匯背后的故事也都反復讀了,還經常把來應用于作文之中,每受褒揚,則沾沾自喜,以為作文之道,庶幾在于是焉。

    沒想到上了高中,遇見另一位教國文的魏開瑜老師——魏老師同時也是一位中醫師——他給我的作文把了一脈。在一篇命題作文后面,魏老師用朱筆細批:“你的詞匯豐富,可是為什么只會從正面說理?”這問題我沒想過,心想:不從正面說理,還有什么理可說?

    待到上大學后,對照賈誼的《過秦論》和蘇洵的《六國論》才逐漸開竅:任何一段故事,都可以應用在相對的義理上;任何一條義理,也都可以容納相異的詮釋——即使是《杰克和豆樹》也完全可以理解成一篇鼓勵行竊殺人以致富的誨盜之作。

    每一個故事,都有不同的解釋面向。一般我們在文章中引用故事,多取其明顯而正面浮現的意思,這是用典的慣例。由于典故長時間在歷史中累積,有許多最后還化身為四字成語;一旦為成語,意思就更加固著,除非戲謔式的低貶仿諷(burlesque, parody,今人習慣稱之曰Kuso),幾乎不可能改變其意義。

    因此,僅僅從成語中汲取教訓,往往限制了我們對于史事多方面的發掘和觀察。比方說以下的例文所舉的“狄青斬關”。截至目前為止,這“狄青斬關”還不是一個大眾通用的成語。也幸虧不是,因為這種寓意繁復的故事是讓我們進一步想象和思索的,不是供人方便套模利用的。

    反面用典的深刻意義是顛覆“成語式思維”,也就是打破“故事/教訓”的慣性、甚至惰性關系,這種書寫恰恰不是為了因循前人的判斷,而是開啟我們自己的觀點。

    (選自《文章自在》,作者:張大春,出版社:廣西師范大學出版社)

    責任編輯: 韋海生

    本站文章均標明作者或出處,僅供個人學習之用,如有侵權,請在下方留言,我將盡快刪除。

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